Friday, April 14, 2017
This morning after breakfast we said goodbye to Shalmi, presented him with our individual thank you letters, took our final group picture and had a group hug.
Today we spent the final day of the 2017 Holocaust Study Tour with our guide, Yola, walking and learning the history of Krakow and the Wawel Castle district. As has been for the past several days, it was cold and windy, but at least there was no rain. Unlike Warsaw and most other Polish cities, Krakow had not been destroyed by the German army in their war to occupy Poland, because the Nazis had decided to make Krakow their headquarters. Most buildings in Krakow, therefore, are the original buildings. Our first stop was Wawel Castle where we saw the fire-breathing Krakow dragon and learned how it came to be the symbol of the city.
We saw the Royal Palace and the statue of Pope John Paul II that stands outside Wawel Cathedral. Also outside the cathedral, Yola pointed out an odd assortment of massive bones that are chained to the wall above the door. While some claim these to be the bones of the Wawel Dragon, they are believed to be a blue whale, woolly mammoth, and rhinoceros. She told us it is believed they have magical properties, and are credited with protecting the city from destruction during centuries of Polish partition and during WWII when Krakow was not damaged, while almost every other major city in Poland was decimated. She said that it is believed that when the bones fall, it will be the end of the world.
From here, we walked back to the Market Square, and enjoyed an afternoon that included lunch and shopping for souvenirs from beautiful Krakow, before heading back to the hotel to prepare for our final dinner this evening.
Thursday, April 13, 2017
Today we headed south to visit two cities: Rabka Zdroj and Zakopane. The weather called for rain and clouds, but we hoped the weather would cooperate with us.
As we left Krakow, Yola gave us maps of Krakow and explained the layout of the city. She talked about her grandmother who had died a few years ago at age 96 and all of the changes that Poland had experienced in that one lifetime --- before World War I as a partitioned nation, then World War I (1914-1918), the establishment of the independent Polish nation (Second Republic) from 1918 until Hitler marched in in 1939; World War II and Occupation by Germany and the Soviet Union (1939-1945), the Communist period and role as a Soviet satellite (1945-1989) and the establishment of democracy and the Third Republic 1989-present) – six regime changes, highlighting the great changes Europe has tended to see in comparison to the stability of the United States. She also spoke to us of growing up under communism in Poland and the changes in her life since the fall of communism.
She told us how surprised she was as a teenager, to learn of the choice of a Polish bishop to become the next pope. We knew some of the ties of Pope John Paul II, now Saint John Paul, to this area. Born Karol Wojtyla in Wadowice, near Krakow, in 1920, he grew up in an apartment building which was owned by a Jewish family and had many Jewish friends growing up. He also was an avid sportsman who loved hiking and skiing in the Tetra mountains bordering Slovakia that we would see today. He was named Archbishop of Krakow in 1964, made a cardinal in 1967, and was elected Pope in 1978. He visited Poland during the communist era and is credited with helping to bring about the fall of communism in Poland.
Our first stop on today’s journey was the small town of Rabka Zdroj, often just referred to as Rabka. Many of the towns in this area also have ‘zdroj’ [meaning ‘spa]] added to their name. This area of Poland is well known for a number of spa towns and health resorts. Rabka has been a source of fresh air for people suffering from lung ailments and allergies for more than a century.
We came to visit a Jewish cemetery we had first visited in 2012 and then again in 2014 and last year, 2016. Each of those years we had trudged up a hill, and taken an unmarked path into the woods which ran before a convent, to a Jewish cemetery virtually hidden in the woods. Shalmi had told us what was known about this area. Before the war, there was a Jewish community here in Rabka, and although the exact numbers were unknown, they were probably about 1/3 or perhaps more of the townspeople, inasmuch as much of the health business was in the hands of Jews. There was also a convent here; the same building but run by a different order. During the war the Gestapo took over part of the convent and used it as a school for interrogation. Part of the experiential learning phase necessitated that they practice on human subjects, and members of the Jewish community were to serve this function. Their interrogation practices involved torture and ended when the subject was dead. They then just threw the bodies out behind the convent building. Our knowledge had been that the sisters knew that they were Jewish and wanted to give them a respectful burial, but they knew nothing about the Jewish rituals for burying the dead. They knew the Germans would not approve, and they were possibly risking their lives, so in secret, they dragged the bodies from behind the convent into the woods where they buried the corpses, one by one, trying as best they could, to provide a respectful burial in this hidden cemetery.
Five years ago, we had attempted to talk to the new order of sisters about the cemetery but they said they knew nothing, clearly did not want to speak with us and did not encourage us to go see it. There was also a neighbor who watched us trek into the woods and was visibly upset with our presence. The same had been true of our visit here, in 2014. But last year Shalmi had said, before we entered the woods, that he thought the mayor had been paying attention to the site. We had carefully maneuvered through muddy sections of the unmarked, barely distinguishable path, and as we turned a corner came upon an unanticipated but wonderful sight: a stone path had been established, a footbridge constructed over the stream, and an information guidepost marker stating what had happened her (in Polish and in English) had been built in front of the gated Jewish cemetery. Inside the cemetery, we had discovered that much work had been done. The weeds had been pulled, the trees and shrubs had been pruned and one could see the memorial markers and the gravesites.
This year we had been in contact with the mayor of Rabka and hoped that we would be able to meet with her and talk about the changes we had seen last year and why the town had chosen to focus efforts on fixing up and marking this site. She was unable to meet with us, but put us in contact with a local resident who, we were told, would be able to speak with us about the Jewish cemetery. It was raining heavily as our bus pulled up in front of the building we had thought was a convent in Rabka ,so we decided to have our meeting with this gentlemen aboard the bus. We could not have anticipated what we were to learn from this special man, Narcyz Listkowski.
Narcyz was an electrician who became interested in the history of the Jewish community in Rabka about ten years ago. He had grown up and still lived in a house that had been owned by Jews in what was a Jewish neighborhood of Rabka. He said that since his early childhood, people had spoken about his house and other homes on the street as also previously owned by Jews. Many residents of these houses felt that if the Jews returned they would be expelled from their homes, so Narcyz said he was raised with a feeling of anxiousness. He also said he had never seen a Jew in his childhood. In 2008 a book had been published, Dark Secrets of Tereski Villa, and in that book he saw a photograph of his home and first learned that it had been the building which house the ritual mikvah and that during the period of 1941-1942 Jewish workers had been brought there and disinfected. He then began to do more research about Jewish history in Rabka.
Today Rabka has a population of 16,000 but no Jews. The first mention of Jews in Rabka was in an 1830 church document which mentioned one Jewish family. Ten years later there were 35 Jews and the Jewish population continued to grow after a spa was established here in 1874. By the end of the 19th century under the Austro-Hungarian Empire there were 280 Jews. Before World War II, the region of Rabka had a population of 7,000 and about 450 Jews. The town of Rabka, itself, was a village of about 3,000 people and 400 Jews. Narcyz said that there were still inhabitants of Rabka who were alive during the war and remembered Jewish neighbors. He had located many of these people and chronicled their oral testimonies.
He told us that the building, since 1995 is the School of St. Theresa, run by an order of nuns. It is a school for children who are blind or partially sighted, as well as children with physical or developmental disabilities. In 1941 it became a Gestapo school for interrogations as we had thought, the German Police Academy under Hans Kruger as its first commandant. The second commander was Wilhelm Rosenbaum who hated Jews. Under Rosenbaum, all Jews more than 10 years old had to be assigned work details such as sweeping, building and cleaning roads, and working in a local quarry. Rosenbaum determined whether the Jews were to be given work or used as test subjects in the interrogation school. Steps to the school were created with headstones from local Jewish cemeteries, though none ever existed in the town of Rabka.
Narcyz said that when the Jews that served as interrogation subjects died, their bodies were just dumped, but contrary to what we had believed, it was not the nuns who buried the bodies from what was the convent across the street, but that other members of the Jewish community came and secretly buried them. It was not until after the war that the nuns began secretly taking care of the Jewish cemetery, but they had no part in its creation. In August 1942 there was a mass deportation of the Rabka Jews to Belzec. At the end of the war, less than 20 Jews of the 450 who had lived here, remained in the area, most having survived in hiding.
Narcyz showed us a detailed map of the Rabka region. He said that in the spring of 1942, there were 690 names on a list created by the local Judenrat (Jewish Council). He had marked in yellow the homes of Jewish families, including the house where he lived. For several years he and two others who are similarly interested in this history, Grzegorz Moskal an Michal Rapta have been working to commemorate sites and make the local people aware of the history. Grzegorz Moskal is a history teacher and Michal Rapta works in a shop. They have been cleaning Jewish cemeteries in the area, and dug out the original steps to the Rabka synagogue on the street where he lives.
We disembarked from the bus and entered the path marked by a signpost reading “Jewish Wartime Cemetery”. We walked to the cemetery where we had a chance to walk around. It turns out that the visits each year of the Holocaust Study Tour and the work of Narcyz and his friends had not gone unnoticed in the community and by the mayor. One thing led to another and the mayor authorized the building of the path and the signposts, and more and more people started to talk about what they knew.
Shalmi told us this was again a subject of human behavior. Why some people, like Narcyz, gaining certain information, became interested and started doing research and others, the majority, having the same information choose to do nothing.
Narcyz said that in 2011 he found the steps leading to the synagogue and started digging them out.
He offered to show us the steps and our bus followed him to the market square. We walked up the street to where the synagogue once stood and he showed us the steps. The building next to the steps is now owned by the town and is slated to become a museum to the history of the town, including its Jewish history, when funds become available. Narcyz showed us the one known photo of the synagogue, a wood synagogue and where it would have been situated on the now vacant land.
He brought us a few houses down to his house where he asked if we would sign his guest book, which we all did. We promised to remain in contact and learn more about his project and the history. Narcyz recommended a local restaurant for lunch and we headed there for a great lunch. After lunch it was raining heavily and we concluded that it was best to head back to Krakow as the outdoor market was likely to be closed and we would be unable to take the funicular to the top.
Wednesday, April 12, 2017
Early at 7:00 a.m. we grabbed breakfast bags which had been made for us by the hotel and set off for the Polish town of Oswięcim. The city was located on a major train track between East and West. Shalmi reminded us that one of the reasons why the Holocaust was considered modern murder was the use of technology and one of the most important aspects was transportation. The Nazis decided it was easier and more efficient to transport victims to the factories of death, rather than kill them on location. Here in the outskirts of Oswięcim, the Nazis would establish Konzentration Lager [KL] Auschwitz. Auschwitz was not one camp but was a complex of three primary sites: Auscwhitz I was the administrative center and concentration camp for primarily Polish prisoners, Auschwitz-Birkenau (Auschwitz II] was the death camp, and Buna [Auschwitz III] was for manufacturing and testing facilities, which also had dozens of labor sub-camps. “How do we explain man’s behavior here? “ Shalmi asked. “A factory which produces death. So far we have been unable to come up with definitive answers. As long as we don’t know why; none of us can say we couldn’t or wouldn’t do this, which is in itself a warning.”
Wojciech, who has guided us through Auschwitz I multiple times and who we always request, was guiding another group from Sweden today, so we were pleased to have been assigned his wife, Agnieszka [Agi] to take us through the camp. We got our headsets and set out with Agi into the cold and very windy weather. The first thing she said was that she did not consider herself a guide. “Only those who came here and survived this place, can guide,” she said. “I consider myself a story teller.”
We started under the iconic sign: Arbeit Macht Frei. There, she gave us the history of the camp. Built in the town of Oswiecim, Auschwitz is the Germanization of the name of the town. It was established by the Nazis in 1940 and was in use until the Allied liberation in 1945. The camp has 28 brick buildings, called Blocks, which served as barracks. The camp is 200 meters long by 300 meters wide. There were 700-1000 people housed in each building. The capacity of Auschwitz was 20,000 inmates. Agi asked what the sign, Arbeit Macht Frei meant and when students answered “Work makes you free” she noted that for her, there was an irony because the harder you worked the faster you died, so for her, ‘Work was the way to Death’.
The living conditions in the camp were severe ---hard work, starvation, disease and brutal treatment--- so that the average time between one’s arrival in Auschwitz I and his death was about 2 months. Agi showed us the kitchen which was a long building located to the right of the gate. If you were lucky, you had a job in the kitchen where they were safe from most of the difficult jobs - they often had access to some extra food, and were also protected from the weather extremes, and so their chances of survival were better than those who had to labor outside.
Agi said that the exhibits we would be seeing in the first blocks were created by survivors of Auschwitz in 1956 so we would be seeing what they wanted us to see. We started with Block 4 and a quote at the entrance: “The one who does not remember history is bound to live through it again.” --- George Santayana.
In 1941, after the invasion of the Soviet Union, Heinrich Himmler ordered the enlargement of the camp and Auschwitz-Birkenau was established. There another 300 buildings were constructed for an additional 90,000 prisoners. In 1942 after the Wannsee Conference this camp starts to function as a death camp. Agi showed us a map of the European cities which transported Jews to Auschwitz and a plaque with the numbers of victims. In the 5 years of the operation of the camp, an estimated 1.3 million came and 1.1 million were murdered. 90 % of the victims were Jewish and most of them never saw the sign, Arbeit Macht Frei as they were taken straight to Auschwitz-Birkenau and executed. An urn with a small amount of human ash in Block 4 symbolizes the lost of all these lives.
We were shown glass cases in which were documentary evidence of the Nazi processing of
Prisoners, lists of countries from which Jews came (Hungary was the largest group, Norway the smallest), pictures of the selection at the ramp in Auschwitz-Birkenau as Nazis determined who would live and who would die.
As we climbed the stairs to the second floor of Block 4, we were shown a large model of a gas chamber which we would see this afternoon in Birkenau and which showed the three phases of its operation. First, there was the disrobing room where people were told to disrobe. They were often told to remember the number on which they put their clothes, or make sure to tie their shoes together, some were even given a piece of soap – all in the name of deception. A gas chamber could hold 1,500 people at a time. The second phase was to have two Zyklon B pellets dropped through the vents in the roof. The Zyklon B pellets alone were harmless, and had been used in delousing, but when dropped into water created a deadly hydrogen cyanide. In 20 minutes, all the people would be dead and the room would be ventilated which required half an hour. The third phase required Jewish prisoners in a special unit called the Sonderkommando to remove the bodies, shave the hair and remove any gold teeth from the corpses, and then burn the bodies in the underground crematorium. The average length of time one served in the Sonderkommando before being killed himself, was 3-4 months. About 80 Sonderkommando survived the war and were able to provide testimony.
In Block 5 were exhibited the ‘evidence of crimes’: belongings brought by victims to Auschwitz, confiscated by the SS and found after liberation. Separate rooms containing shoes, eyeglasses, prayer shawls, shaving kits, household cooking items, baby clothes, and other items which had been packed in the labeled suitcases they packed. These provided physical evidence of the existence of so many victims as well as some insight into what they might have thought was their destination. Agi said that the shoe polish, to her, was an indication that they had no clue what was going to happen, but were focused on tomorrow, not knowing there would be no tomorrow. A large room with a wall-to-wall display case of human hair was especially moving. When the Soviet army liberated Auschwitz they found 7 tons of women’s hair in warehouses from 40,000 women who had been killed; the only remaining trace of them. The hair was sold to textile manufacturers for production of army uniforms or gloves and socks for railroad workers.
In Block 11, we saw accommodations for prisoners who were to be interrogated and/or punished. Downstairs we saw three types of punishment cells: dark cell, starvation cell and the standing cell in which three or four people could be forced to stand for days at a time. Punishment might be 3-5 days in one of these cells for a minor infraction of a camp rule or 2 weeks for sabotage. One of the crimes was smoking in camp which would give a prisoner 5 days in a standing cell. Smoking meant the prisoner had access to the outside world and was able to smuggle in contraband. We were told that if one person escaped from Auschwitz, that 10 other prisoners would be brought to one of these cells and punished. Agi said that 147 people successfully escaped from Auschwitz which meant that over 1400 people were taken to Block 11 and starved. Time in a punishment cell could be a death sentence. We viewed the execution wall, called the Wall of Death, between Blocks 10 and 11, where tens of thousands of prisoners were lined up naked and shot once in the back of the head.
We next walked to Block 27. Agi reminded us that all we had seen had been created by Holocaust survivors in the 1950’s. She told us that since that time many nations such as the Netherlands and Hungary, had created special exhibits in other barracks buildings. Three years ago, the State of Israel sponsored such an exhibit designed by Yad Vashem, in Block 27. The exhibit began with a quote from the diary of Zalman Gradowski, a member of the Sondercommando. He had kept a diary during his time in Auschwitz and before his death, had buried his diary in the courtyard of Block 3, which was later found. His quote said “Come here you free citizen of the world, whose life is safeguarded by human morality and whose existence is guaranteed through law. I want to tell you how much modern criminals and despicable murderers have trampled the morality of life and nullified the postulates of existence.”
The exhibition included a large room with photographs and videos of European Jews pre-war. There were 11 million Jewish people in Europe. 11 million Jewish people were to be murdered, no matter where they lived or how they lived. In another room were large monitors with speeches by Nazi leaders. In one speech in 1939 Hitler states that the enemy of Germany, which must be totally annihilated is the Jew. He openly states his intent to kill all the Jews. This was 8 months before the war and 3 years before the Wannsee Conference. There was a room with video testimony of survivors: “How Jews Coped During the Holocaust” and a room “Traces of Life” dedicated to the 1.5 million children murdered in the Holocaust which has small drawings made by children in Terezin.
The highlight and last room of the exhibit was called the Book of Names. In a long room, a book as big as the room, fills two sides of 16,000 pages, listing the names and some information such as place of birth and birthdate, place and date of death, if these were known, of more than four million documented Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Students spent some time looking through the pages, some looking for their own name, or the name of someone they knew.
Our last stop in Auschwitz I was the crematorium of the camp. There we saw the home of the camp commandant Rudolf Hoss and the gallows where he was hanged for his war crimes on April 16, 1947. The gallows was used once --- for his execution. We then walked through the crematorium which was used to cremate the bodies of people who had perished in the camp.
After a brief bag lunch on the bus as it was still cold and windy, we drove the short distance to Auschwitz-Birkenau where Shami spent three hours showing us the death camp. He talked about how the camp had changed in the spring of 1944 when the Nazis expected one million Hungarian Jews to be transported here. It was then that they added the rail spur coming into the camp, preparing for the influx of prisoners.
We visited the quarantine barracks Towards the end of the war, Germany needed more workers as they sent more men and young boys to the front. Jewish workers were shipped into Germany to fulfill that need. The problem was that these Jews coming from camps were poorly nourished and could have diseases and secondly, they were Jews: according to Nazi racial ideology, by definition they were disease. Germany by now was essentially ‘Judenrein’ [Jew-free] but they were essential to the war effort so they were brought here and housed [no sleeping area - just an open space at one end and long rows of latrines at the other] for three days until they were declared disease-free and could continue their journey into Germany.
We also saw the Czech Terezin family camp which Shalmi had spoken to us about in Terezin. The Czech Jews had been transported to Auschwitz to reduce the overcrowding prior to the Red Cross visit as part of the beautification project. Once the visit had occurred, however, the Czech camp was liquidated and all of its inmates sent to the gas chambers.
Passing a large pool of water, Shalmi told us it was one of two such pools, required by the Swiss insurance company, Allianz, before it would agree to insure Auschwitz-Birkenau. This factory of death was insured against damage by fire.
Next Shalmi spoke of the importance of “The Ramp” where the selection process was made determining whether one was to live or die. He told us several emotional stories shared with him as he chronicled survivor testimony, in which they described their experiences on The Ramp. He told us many survivors often speak of their life “before the ramp” and their “life after the ramp.”
We saw the remains of the crematoria which had been destroyed by the Nazis before fleeing. Shalmi drew our attention to one beam. The Nazis hired professionals to do their construction. This architect knew he was creating a crematorium. It wasn’t enough to make straight, simple lines - he put moldings on the beam to make it more beautiful. He was concerned with aesthetics as he was making a chamber of death.
The 'sauna' served as the building where those who had been chosen to live were processed (uniforms, tattooed, shaved) and we walked through the processing rooms, and spent some time looking at the photographs displayed which had been found in peoples’ suitcases. We also viewed the remains of the warehouses called Canada which were massive storage buildings which housed confiscated Jewish property taken at the ramp,
Shalmi had started our visit with some observations about human behavior. Throughout the day he had made some additional observations. He had told us of people such as Dora, a woman in charge of the women’s camp who had originally been imprisoned as a communist and could have obtained early release but would not inform on her fellow communists, but then here, became a cold, harsh, unfeeling matron of the camp. “We should all be afraid of what we can do under certain circumstances”, he said. “Some people descend to the level of beasts, others rise to the level of angels. And you ask, ‘Who are those human beings. Is this a man?’”
Day 12 Padlet Reflections athttps://padlet.com/daufiero/c8